Abstract: Cognitive theory is one of the dominant paradigms in psychology and psychotherapy these days. Its concepts about adaptive and maladaptive schemas resonate with the Enneagram’s notion of higher and lower intellectual centers with their divine ideas and fixations. This study explored the relationship between 11 maladaptive schemas, or lifetraps, and the 9 Enneagram styles. One-hundred-twenty-five participants in the author’s Enneagram Training and Certification Program were administered the Wagner Enneagram Personality Style Scales (WEPSS) and the Lifetraps Questionnaire (Young’s inventory). Correlation coefficients were determined for all the variables and small but statistically significant relationships were found in the direction that corroborated both cognitive and Enneagram theory. The interrelationships are presented and discussed with the intention of improving our techniques for noticing and addressing particular schemas corresponding to particular Enneagram types.


The following content is accessible for members only, please sign in.

DO log in with the personal email address for your IEA member account.

DO NOT log in with an email address for an Accredited Enneagram School (AES) accounts or Accredited Training Program (ATP).

AESs and ATPs no longer have separate accounts.

Instead, log in with the sponsor’s IEA member account in order to make changes.

If you believe this is an error, try signing out and signing in again.