In his role as a forensic psychologist and expert witness, Carr has used the Enneagram in many well-known trials that have contributed to important precedents in South African Law. While Carr has not explicitly named the Enneagram in court, he has used his knowledge of the Enneagram to explain personality and the psychological dynamics and motivations that were at play in the committal of crimes as well as in the effects of trauma on claimants in damages claims. Focusing on a fraud and a murder case, particular emphasis will be placed on what Carr has nicknamed the “terrible Twos”-a seemingly unlikely Enneagram number for persons who commit serious crimes. Attention will also be given to the collusion between Twos and Eights, and the power issues that can create the conditions that facilitate the development of abusive relationships. Mention will be made of two other cases, a murder case and a damages claim made against the South African government by three men who, during the apartheid era, were framed for murder, unlawfully arrested, tortured, maliciously prosecuted, and sent to death row for six years. Carr will guide participants through the process of deconstructing legal and personal narratives and then utilize their Enneagram knowledge to create a suitable grounds — based on personality — for the defense of claims in these cases. Carr will then demonstrate the process that he used to create defenses or claims in these cases.

Leonard Carr is a clinical psychologist who has had nearly twenty-five years experience in counselling in diverse lay-voluntary and professional settings. He has provided ongoing training, and individual and group case consultation to many welfare and counselling organizations. As an expert witness he has presented findings in the courts of South Africa, including the Constitutional Court, and has had reports accepted by courts in many countries. He has served on commissions of enquiry and taken part in public interest lobbies. Carr runs growth courses and workshops based on the Enneagram and Narrative Therapy as well as consulting and coaching in corporate settings. Well known as a local and international speaker and workshop presenter, he has appeared on national and international television and radio programs. His own regular show,”The Soulfulness of Everyday Life,”is featured on Infusion Radio, the World Space Satellite Radio Network. ( His other series include therapeutic children’s stories designed to teach Enneagram concepts to young children and programs for relationship preparation and enrichment. He is the in-house psychologist of Infusion Radio, answering on air email questions submitted by listeners at or

Johannesburg, South Africa (2

Leonard Carr


2005 IEA Global Conference

San Francisco, California, USA

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